to the Ford's Theatre Museum in Washington D.C., over 16,000
books have been written about Abraham Lincoln. Despite this
immense volume of literature, only one book has ever documented
the accomplices who helped John Wilkes Booth assassinate Lincoln:
Reason Lincoln Had to Die.
assassination was ordered by a coalition of men within the
United States government, and not (as everyone in America
is taught to believe) by persons associated with the Confederacy.
Lincoln was determined to allow Southern representatives to
return to Congress after the Civil War ended. To control the
majority vote in Congress Lincoln had to be removed from office.
investigation into the assassination and the conspiracy trial
were both conducted by the very people responsible for Lincoln's
murder. Three of the four who were convicted and hanged had
no involvement in killing Lincoln, but (at worst) had been
only would-be kidnappers.
investigating team under the Secretary of War Edwin Stanton
and his military judges in the conspiracy trial all knew the
double agent working for Stanton (James
Donaldson) who provided Booth the plan to attack Lincoln
and Seward. They all worked together with the Secretary of
War to hide evidence and execute defenseless victims in order
to cover their own assassination plot. The evidence and double
agents who have been hidden from the American public for almost
150 years is now revealed with unquestionable, documented
proof. However, the reason Lincoln had to die involved more
than just those who plotted his assassination, but those who
would profit from it. Therefore, I am presenting this basic,
condensed back-story about the railroad industrialists behind
the rise and fall of Abraham Lincoln.
1849: The Rush Is On!
before the Civil War began, the discovery of gold in California
inspired a political revelation. The idea to build an overland
route to connect the far western gold fields of California
to the eastern bankers triggered a merger between private
enterprise and government subsidies. Tycoons from the industrial
Northeast competed against large-scale plantation barons in
the South over building a transcontinental railroad, either
in the North or in the South. But for any region of the Union
(industrial or agricultural) to gain the advantage of government
assistance they first had to win the Congressional majority
vote, and preferably presidential loyalty. After the Kansas-Nebraska
Act was signed into law (providing an advantage to agricultural
states) the territory of Kansas would become the center of
this “war between the states,” and during the effort to have
that federal law repealed, the Republican Party was
biggest obstacle in building the railroad through the north
was crossing the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the northern
industrial capitalists would need federal funding to finance
such a mammoth project. In
1859 William T. Sherman wrote his brother:
now assert my belief that the great railroad will not
receive enough net profit to pay interest on its cost.
[...] It is a work of giants, and Uncle Sam is the only
giant I know who can or should grapple with the subject.
northern capitalists would band together and support Abraham
Lincoln's first election, but these same men would later form
a coalition to keep him from serving a second term.
years before Lincoln was elected president of the United States
he could not even win the Senate seat in his own state of
Illinois against the author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, Stephen
Douglas. Lincoln's rapid rise as leader of the Republican
Party began as a direct result of financial backing from some
very wealthy railroad executives.
Eastern Railroad Executives
C. Durant began his long, influential career as a Chicago
broker for the Rock Island Railroad, while also director of
his family's grain exporting company out of New York. Durant
was just one of many northeastern capitalists who had
political insiders he could call on for government assistance
in his many corporate ventures. His early political arsenal
included Senator John A. Dix from New York
and a persuasive defense lawyer from Illinois named Abraham
Lincoln. In the 1850s, Lincoln was hired by Durant and
other railroad executives to defend the railroad companies
against lawsuits and charges of tax evasion. Durant would
become the driving force behind the Union Pacific Railroad
with the express purpose to build the transcontinental railroad,
running west from Omaha to join the Central Pacific Railroad
running east from Sacramento. The Union Pacific Railroad Company
was formed from a merger of the Rock Island, M&M, and
Illinois Central railroad companies.
A. Dix also supported Lincoln's first election. Dix rose
to prominence as a figurehead president of the M&M Railroad
Company, all the while under the direction of Thomas Durant.
Dix was appointed United States Treasury Secretary after Howell
Cobb resigned to join the Confederate government in 1861.
John Dix quickly stabilized the Treasury after the tariff
tax revenues from the Southern states suddenly ended. Dix
was appointed Major General for the Union Army and maintained
a very active role in New York politics throughout the Civil
Farnam was a congressional lobbyist,
Connecticut railroad merchant, and business partner with Thomas
Durant. Together they created the M&M railroad company
to run the first leg of the northern railroad line from Davenport,
Iowa, to Council Bluffs on the Missouri River. In 1856 the
M&M railroad company built the first government bridge
that would cross the Mississippi River and link up with the
Chicago and Rock Island Railroad line. This bridge was the
beginning of the first phase of creating a transcontinental
1859 Abraham Lincoln and a young railroad surveyor, Grenville
Dodge, both purchased investment property along the Platte
River Valley, speculating that the transcontinental eastern
terminus would win government approval at that location. On
November 4, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln issued his executive
approval to Thomas Durant, allowing the Union Pacific Railroad
to begin their eastern terminus at Omaha, through the same
location where Lincoln and Dodge had cleverly invested in
land five years earlier.
Dodge was a railroad engineer, surveyor, investor,
land speculator, and business associate with Abraham Lincoln.
Dodge became a Major General in the Union Army, appointed
head of the Western division of the Secret Service, and he
advised President Lincoln to call on Thomas Durant to create
the Union Pacific Railroad Company to finish the eastern leg
of the transcontinental railroad.
was president of the Illinois Central Railroad Company and
became the social escort for presidential candidate Abraham
Lincoln during his 1860 campaign in New York. Brayman
was just one of several railroad executives present when
Lincoln gave his Cooper Union campaign speech in New York.
Lincoln promised, if elected, he would nullify the Kansas-Nebraska
us have faith that right makes might, and in that faith
let us to the end dare to do our duty as we understand
that speech the northern transcontinental railroad investors
were assured that “President” Lincoln would, without
question, force an end to the federal law of the Kansas-Nebraska
Act without Congressional approval, and bring Kansas into
the Union as a Republican majority, slave-free state.
the "bloody" Kansas territory became a state, the
Federal government owned nearly every acre of land north of
Kansas, between the Missouri River and the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
By the end of The War Between the States, the majority of
that land, all its timber and minerals, belonged to the railroad
companies, and the federal property that was yet unclaimed
would belong to whomever could solicit the most votes. After
May, 1861, the Confederate states had no congressional votes
over this competition for unclaimed territory.
political backers for Abraham Lincoln's first term:
C. Whitney: attorney for the Illinois Central Railroad
Judd: attorney for the Rock Island Railroad Company.
H. Grinnell: Railroad investor from New York.
Barney and Charles C. Nott: political campaign
sponsors and organizers for New York patronage.
Western Railroad Executives
D. Judah was a lobbyist for congressional railroad legislation
and founder of the Central Pacific, but he died a young man
C. Frémont began his career as an army explorer
assigned to find a railroad route through the Sierra Nevada
Mountains. Frémont became a Senator from Sacramento,
California, where the terminus would begin for the Central
Pacific Railroad heading east. He was nominated to be the
first Republican presidential candidate, but he lost to the
Democrat James Buchanan.
Frémont became the 1856 Republican nominee, William
T. Sherman took his place as explorer for the transcontinental
railroad route through the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Sherman
was one of several Major Generals in the Union Army who
aggressively destroyed the railroads, bridges, homes, businesses,
crops and the overall infrastructure in the Southern states,
mostly during the last months of the Civil War.
was also a Major General in the Union Army, but he criticized
Lincoln's administration and challenged Lincoln for
the 1864 presidential Republican nomination, as did Salmon
P. Chase. Fremont's political backers were Congressman
Henry Winter Davis, Senator Benjamin Wade (coauthors
of the Wade-Davis Bill that Lincoln vetoed), along with Senator
Zachariah Chandler, who was also very critical of President
"Big Four" of the Central Pacific Railroad Company
were Leland Stanford, governor of California; Charles
Crocker and Mark Hopkins, investors for the transcontinental
northern route; and Collis Porter Huntington, a wealthy
capitalist, appointed president of the Central Pacific. These
men were competing against the Union Pacific in the east over
the lucrative government subsidies provided in the 1862 and
1864 railroad legislation.
Ames was a Massachusetts business tycoon, and he loaned
C. P. Huntington $200,000 to start the Central Pacific
Railroad Company. Ames was elected to Congress and
served on the House committee to amend the 1862 Pacific
Railroad Bill (land grants, timber and mining subsidies
doubled in his 1864 amendment). Regarding this legislation,
C. P. Huntington wrote:
150 mile limit ought not to have gone into the bill, but
I said to Mr. Union Pacific, when I saw it, I would take
that out as soon as I wanted it out.
years later Huntington, through his congressional
influence, did just that.
Honors His Obligation (to a point)
payback to the railroad men who supported his first election
was to ensure that the transcontinental railroad line would
run from Sacramento to Chicago. Lincoln honored his obligation
to his political supporters who helped him win the election,
however he refused to be their puppet president.
His first-term policy was to restore the Union he himself
had broken by unconstitutionally nullifying the Kansas-Nebraska
Act. This act had been approved by both houses of Congress
and signed into law by Democrat President Franklin Pierce,
and there were not enough votes to have it legally repealed.
Lincoln's view, the sole purpose for breaking the Constitution
was to stop the escalation of slavery into the Western territories
of the United States. However, he would not agree to strip
the slave states of their Congressional representation like
he was warned he should do by the architects of his assassination
Reason Lincoln Had to Die, chapters 4, 5 and 8).
policy toward abolishing slavery in the United States
was to use constitutional means, while calling for government
subsidies to share the cost. President Lincoln argued throughout
his entire tenure for compensation to cover the tremendous
financial deficit emancipation would leave in the economies
of the Union slave states as well as the Southern states.
But the northeastern capitalists who put him in office would
have no part of sharing any expense or responsibility for
the social and economic burdens immediate abolition would
create in the former slave states.
S. Grant also had a close association with the northern
railroad capitalists. He became a Major General in the Union
Army and was later promoted to Lieutenant General. Grant,
too, advocated a scorched earth policy to destroy the
infrastructure in the Southern states. His motive for causing
such devastation in the South had nothing to do with passing
emancipation. During the entire Civil War, there were no Confederate
Representatives in the U.S. Congress to block an amendment
making slavery unconstitutional throughout North America.
On December 6, 1864, President Lincoln complained, during
his last State of the Union Address to Congress, that
the House of Representatives still did not have enough votes
to even propose a 13th Amendment. Slavery remained
legal in the United States until the Constitution was amended
eight months after Lincoln had been assassinated. The true
reason (by the northeast capitalists) for the Civil War had
always been to win congressional votes on government subsidies,
not total emancipation. Well before the day Lincoln was assassinated
slavery was defunct.
Norhteastern industrialists feared that if the Civil War were
to end while Lincoln was still President, he would do as he
promised to doallow the Southern
states back into Congress and return all Southern confiscated
property to their legal owners.
With Lincoln as President, the agricultural South would rejoin
the Northwestern corn and wheat belt states in the pre-Civil
War competition with the Northeast industrialists over government
than three months before he was assassinated, Lincoln
switched sides and appointed Oakes Ames to replace Thomas
Durant as the new director to finish the westward transcontinental
line, linking Chicago to Sacramento. Lincoln told Ames:
the subsidies provided are not enough to build a road,
ask double and you shall have it.
was so mad at Lincoln he could kill him.
order for the industrial north to dominate legislation on
taxes and spending, Lincoln had to be removed from office
to keep the agricultural South (which would vote with the
Democrat Northwest) out of Congress.
Architects of Lincoln's Assassination
Reason Lincoln Had to Die details the involvement
of the men listed below)
P. Chase, U.S. Secretary
of the Treasury, later U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice
Sumner, U.S. Senator, Massachusetts
Stevens, U.S. Representative,
Stanton, U.S. Secretary of War
for Stanton's Secret Spy Division
Holt, U.S. Army Judge Advocate General, War Department
Chief Investigator, Chief Prosecutor and Judicial Advisor
to the Lincoln Assassination Conspirators' Trial
Eckert, War Department Chief Telegraph Officer
McPhail, Provost Marshal of Baltimore
Baker, Chief Detective of the Union Intelligence Service
Few Known Spies and Informers
Hall, Charles Yates, James Donaldson, Margaret Coleman, Kate
Warne [Brown/Thompson], Louis J. Weichmann,
Daniel Thomas, William A. Evans, Samuel Thomas, Thomas Harbin,
Samuel Cox, Thomas Jones, and John Parker.
Following Lincoln's Removal
Lincoln's death Durant and Ames fought each other over
the Credit Mobilier railroad stock that was being traded for
votes on lucrative corporate contracts and government subsidies.
In 1866, Oliver Ames Jr., the brother of Oakes, was
appointed the new president of the same Union Pacific Railroad
Company that Durant had created. All this corruption over
the stock and stock recipients led to a criminal investigation
by Congress, and both men, Thomas Durant and Oakes Ames fought
lawsuits right up until the day they died.
Civil War and Lincoln's murder were not about freeing the
slaves, but about congressional votes over the distribution
of federal property. Abolishing “slave power” was to reverse
the political advantage previously enjoyed by the agricultural
states. The liberty and welfare of the slave population was
in truth just a pretense exploited by Lincoln's assassins
to achieve political supremacy. Two days before Lincoln was
shot to death, he was given his last warning to keep the South
out of Congress and to mandate voting rights to former slaves
in the South, which he refused to do.
battle over congressional votes has never ended, and understanding
the reason Lincoln had to die is as relevant today as it was
the day they killed him.
Andrew Johnson's term ended in political disaster, Grant was
elected the next United States president. Grant's two-term
administrations are most remembered for introducing a
new era of runaway corporate greed driving government corruption.
is a list of Northeastern Republican Congressmen who exchanged
legislative votes for Credit Mobilier stock offered by corporate
lobbyists over the public interest: